CHIMPANZEES

 

Chimpanzee(chimp), is the common name for the two related species of apes in the genus Pan. The Congo River forms the boundary between the native habitat of the two species,that is the
Pan troglodytes which is in West and Central Africa and  the Bonobo, which is the Pan paniscus in forests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Gorillas, humans, orangutans and chimps make up the Hominidae family.Among these,Chimps are the closest living relatives to humans.
About 4 to 6 million years ago,Chimps shared an ancestor,but they are alleged to have separated around that same time.Zoologists have come up with conflicting results from their respective researches about chimpanzees,e.g Mary-Claire King in 1973 found  99% identical DNA between human beings and chimpanzees although her findings have since been disputed by further researches which approximates about 94%  of identical DNA.
J. Diamond in his book where he refers to man as The Third Chimpanzee, He records that P. troglodytes and P. paniscus belong with Homo sapiens in the genus Homo, rather than in Pan.
Chimpanzee fossils have been discovered in Kenya in East Africa,further advancig the facct the firsh human being existed and lived in East Africa.

Facts

The male common chimp is 1.7 metres tall maximum, (5.6 ft) high when standing, and weighs 70 kilograms (150 lb) at the most; the female is somewhat smaller.
A Chimp walks on all its four limbs using its knuckles for support with its hands clenched, a form of movement called knuckle-walking.
The brain of a chimpanzee has been measured at approximately 337 cc,to approximately 393 cc, with a general range of 282-500 cc.
Human brains, however, have been measured as being 3 times larger.

Social structure.
Chimpanzees live in communities which are made up of large multiple-male and multiple-female polpulations. Within a community,there is a social hierarchy and it is automatically determined by the position of an individual and the influence the individual has on others. In this hierarchy,more than one individual may be dominant enough to dominate other members of lower rank. A dominant male is referred to as the alpha male. It maintains order during any misunderstandings and  tightly controls the group. The alpha male does not have to be the largest or strongest male, but rather the most manipulative and political male.
Male chimpanzees set up influence the same way like humans do through making allies who provide support for that fellow in case of future ambitions for power. The alpha male usually makes his normally slim coat puffed up to increase view size and charge to look as threatening and as powerful as possible.
Lower-ranking chimpanzees will show respect by making submissive gestures in body language or reaching out their hands while grunting.Female chimpanzees will show deference to the alpha male by presenting their hindquarters.
Female chimpanzees also have a hierarchy.In some chimpanzee communities, the young females may inherit high status from a high-ranking mother but the quest for domination in females is no difference from that of males.
The major difference is that the males’ main purpose for acquiring dominant status is for access to mating privileges and sometimes violent domination of subordinates, while females want access to resources such as food. Females ensure that their group is going to places that supply them with enough food.
Surprisingly,the females can help a male become an alpha male. A group of dominant females oust an alpha male which is not to their preference and then back up the other male who they assume to be a successful alpha male.
Chimpanzees make tools and use them to gather food and for social displays.They  hunt in groups and use sophisticated tactics.
Nest-building.
Chimps make arboreal night nests by tying together branches from one or more trees. Nests consist of a mattress, supported on a strong foundation, and lined above with soft leaves and twigs, and are built in trees with a minimum diameter of 5 metres (16 ft) and may be located at a height of 3 to 45 metres (9.8 to 148 ft). Both day and night nests are built; they may be located in groups.

Aggression.

Chimps also organise hunts for smaller primates like the red colobus monkeys and bush babies.
More Human Behaviour.
Infact humans are not the only creatures that laugh,chimps also do. The differences between chimpanzee and human laughter may be the result of adaptations that have evolved to enable human speech but the creatures laugh like the way we do.
Chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans show laughter-like vocalizations in response to physical contact, such as wrestling, play-chasing, or tickling.


 

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